Piping systems must be able to tolerate variations in pressure caused by starting or stopping pumps, opening or closing valves, filling and draining, etc. Piping systems should be analyzed to quantify transient pressures. For many systems, it is helpful to use a numerical model to quantify transient pressures and determine if and what type of surge protection is needed.



TEC is experienced with solving water hammer, surge and transient problems with research and physical and numerically modeling of piping systems. TEC has provided consulting services to engineering firms and municipalities to solve their transient problems.

Innovative TEC Solutions

  • Transient analysis of circulating and auxilliary water pumps systems for Los Esteros Critical Energy Project.
  • Transients caused by start-up of circulating water pumps at D C Cook nuclear power plant
  • Determination of safe opening time for drain vavles in San Joaquin Pipeline, Public Utilities of SF CA, 2000
  • Computer analysis of pipeline collapse due to surge pressures resulting from a pipeline break
  • Numerous projects involving transients caused by operation of control valves.
  • Analysis of ruptured pipe in cooling plant at a hospital in South Dakota due to air trapped in pipe at pump start-up.
  • Analysis of transients in penstocks of hydropower installations.
  • Design, computer analysis and physical modeling of surge control devices including air chambers, surge tanks, stand pipes, pressure relief valves and surge anticipating valves.
  • Design, computer analysis and laboratory testing of air vents and air release/vacuum breaking valves for pipelines.
  • Computer analysis to develop safe methods of filling and operate pipelines to minimize surging and water hammer effects.
  • Computer and physical modeling of column separation and the influence of trapped air on water hammer pressures in pipelines.
  • Analysis of vibrations and pressure surges in nuclear pump test loops.
  • Field testing and computer analysis of transients caused by starting and stopping pumps in pipelines at a sewage pump station for Northglenn City, Colorado .
  • Computer simulation of pulsatile blood flow in human arteries and evaluation of the influence of single and multiple stenoses on flow rate, pulse pressure and mean pressure
  • Field testing and computer simulation of an irrigation pipeline, Fielding Utah.